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LA VIDA PRIVADA DE LA LITERATURA

Don Quijote

Durante su regreso desde Nápoles a España a bordo de una galera,  una flotilla turca  hizo preso a Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra y a su hermano Rodrigo. El 26 de septiembre de 1575 fueron capturados.
Cervantes es adjudicado como esclavo, el hecho de haberle encontrado en su poder cartas de recomendación que llevaba de don Juan de Asturias y del Duque de Sessa hizo pensar a sus captores que Cervantes era una persona muy importante y por quien podrían conseguir un buen rescate pidieron 500 escudos de oro por su libertad

Cervantes hombre nada acomodaticio y con un fuerte espíritu y motivado trató de escapar en cuatro ocasiones organizando el mismo los cuatro intentos. Intentos que fueron fallidos y  para evitar represalias en sus compañeros el cautivo se hizo responsable de todo ante sus enemigos y prefirió la tortura antes de delatar a sus compañeros. Los cuatro intentos de fuga fracasaron y Miguel de Cervantes fue sentenciado a dos mil palos, sentencia que no se cumplió porque muchos fueron los que intercedieron por el

Mientras  tanto la madre de Cervantes había conseguido reunir cierta cantidad  de escudos con la esperanza de poder rescatar a sus dos hijos en 1577 pero la cantidad no fue suficiente para rescatar a los dos,  Miguel prefirió que fuera puesto en libertad su hermano.

Fray Juan Gil que únicamente disponía de trescientos escudos trato de rescatar a Cervantes por el cual se exigían quinientos, el fraile se ocupó de recolectar entre los mercaderes cristianos la cantidad que faltaba.
El dinero fue reunido cuando ya Cervantes estaba en una de las galeras en que zarparía rumbo a Constantinopla atado con dos cadenas y un grillo gracias a los 500 escudos tan arduamente reunidos Cervantes es liberado el 19 de septiembre de 1580 y el 24 de octubre regreso al fin a España.

Pero que haría Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra cautivo durante cinco años, con ese espíritu indómito,  y su hidalgo corazón, como distraerse para no perder la cordura en aquel lugar pestilente y sórdido.
En el caluroso interior de la cárcel de Sevilla de la pluma de Cervantes  nace “En un lugar de la mancha de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarme.”

Robinson Crusoe

Corría el año 1704, Alexander Selkirk era tripulante del Galeon Cinque Ports, comandado por el corsario William Dampier, quien decidió abandonar a Selkirk en una isla deshabitada por quejarse de las terribles condiciones que estaban tanto la tripulación como el galeón, el cual termino hundiéndose solo un mes después de que el pirata fuera abandonado a su suerte.

William Dampier fue acusado del hundimiento por no haberle dado el mantenimiento de rigor al navío. El corsario, Woodes Rogers, había sido informado acerca de la suerte del pirata y cuando tomo el mando de su Galeón, se dirigió al archipiélago Juan Fernández, en su búsqueda, a lo lejos pudo divisar la fogata encendida de su amigo, Alexander Selkirk quien paso en aquella isla cuatro años, cuatro meses, era rescatado el viernes 2 de febrero de 1709

Robinson Crusoe en Guayaquil

Los navios Duke y la Duchesse atracaron en un lugar donde había un puente peatonal de madera de más de media milla de largo, unas pocas casas quizás unas 500 en todo el lugar, había algunas iglesias la de Santiago Apóstol, que cuenta con siete altares, rodeada de una hermosa plaza, tres iglesias más la de Santo Domingo que no están terminada del todo,

Algunas casas eran muy altas, algunas construidas con ladrillos, pero la mayoría de madera y unas pocas con cierto tipo de bambú. Solo hay una calle normal junto a la orilla del rio, la ciudad es pantanosa.

Hay una plaza con una media luna sobre la que antes se ubicaron las armas pero no había ninguna cuando tomamos la ciudad y la platería de las iglesias había sido escondida en los bosques antes de nuestra llegada. Así describió a la ciudad de Guayaquil Woder Rogers

Alexander Selkirk se encontraba en esa embarcación, tras haber vivido en soledad durante más de cuatro años, bajó a tierra y participó en los atracos y festejos propios de los piratas. Selkirk publicó su vida en la isla, libro que más tarde sirvió al escritor Daniel Foe, más conocido como Daniel Defoe a escribir su gran novela. El titulo original de la novela es: La vida e increíbles aventuras de Robinson Crusoe.

Foto: elejandría.com (Don Quijote de La Mancha); sextogradocuauhtemoc.blogspot; cervantesvirtual.com;


BERNARDA CALVO En realidad no soy capaz de hacer una semblanza de mí. ¿Cómo describir lo que hago o porque lo hago? Como decir quién soy si aún no reconozco mi rostro en el espejo, si escribo para habitar por otro mundo. Todo en mi es incendio, impulso. Escapar de todos lados, de todas las personas

 

 

Acerca de Aurelio Paredes

Periodista de Profesión (Licenciado en Comunicación Social, graduado en la Universidad de Guayaquil), ecuatoriano de nacimiento, 59 años de edad y 37 años de experiencia. Empezó en 1982 como reportero radial y escaló posiciones hasta llegar a ser Editor de Deportes de Diario El Universo de Guayaquil, considerado el matutino de mayor circulación en Ecuador; Director de Revista Estadio (Deportiva) y Editor de Revista Vistazo (Política y Actualidad); presentador de televisión en varios programas deportivos; columnista de deportes y páginas humorísticas bajo el seudónimo de Delado; y guionista empírico en algunos programas de la televisión ecuatoriana. En la función pública fue Director de Comunicación de la Procuraduría General del Estado y en la empresa privada, Director de la Federación Deportiva Nacional del Ecuador.

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