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EL AYUNO ¿ES PARA TODOS?

Al día de hoy encontramos muchas propuestas que garantizan perder peso o mejorar la salud, pero ¿serán propuestas aplicables a toda la población con obesidad?, ¿Tiene contraindicaciones? Hoy vamos a analizar una de las estrategias que se ha puesto más de moda: el ayuno intermitente

 

¿Qué es?

Hay varias formas de ayuno, desde la más común de 12 horas (que la mayoría de personas hacemos sin proponernos a hacer un “ayuno” como tal) cenando 7-8pm y des-ayunando 7-8am. También hay quien ayuna 16 horas (por ejemplo cenando 9pm y haciendo la siguiente comida a la 1 pm del día siguiente), hay ayunos completos de 24 horas o ayunos mensuales de dejar de comer 2 días al mes.

¿Los ayunos son aplicables a todas las personas?

Dependiendo del ayuno puede ser una estrategia a utilizar en ciertos casos a consideración y criterio del profesional de la salud/nutricionista pero hay evidencia que nos llama a considerar que las restricciones de tiempos completos de comida suelen estar asociados a cuadros de ansiedad, frustración con la comida, atracones, mala relación con los alimentos y Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria.

Los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (bulimia, anorexia) son difíciles de diagnosticar (por la negación al problema de parte de los pacientes), son difíciles de tratar (es necesario un apoyo psicológico y multidisciplinario de meses y muchas veces años), y en el peor de los casos se pone en riesgo incluso la vida si no se logra corregir a tiempo.

La mayoría de personas que buscan métodos para bajar de peso a toda costa, como ayunos de 16, 18 o 24 horas o dietas de restricción son personas con sobrepeso u obesidad y son quienes están más propensos a estos trastornos mencionados, y se convierten en una población vulnerable.

Para bajar de peso es necesario en primer lugar mejorar el estilo de vida, dentro de esto está la CALIDAD de la comida. Esto sí es extrapolable a toda la población. Antes que pensar en la frecuencia, pensar en lo que comemos finalmente a lo largo del día que en términos generales deben ser de base alimentos de origen vegetal (vegetales, verduras, frutas, granos como frejoles, lentejas, garbanzos, plátano verde, yuca), menos de alimentos de origen animal (pollo, pavo, pescado, cerdo, mariscos) cuidando siempre evitar la cocción frita y poco o nada de alimentos ultraprocesados.

No sirve de nada si ayunas 24 horas para terminar comiendo pizza, hotdog, hamburguesa, papas fritas, alcohol, pan, embutidos y gaseosa “light”.

No sirve de nada si ayunas 2 semanas y luego no aguantas más para seguir con la alimentación que llevabas antes.

Toda estrategia de alimentación saludable debe poder ser llevada a cabo a largo plazo, aplicable para todos en casa, y sobretodo que nos permita seguir viviendo tranquilos y felices.

¿A quién SI le funciona?

Si has estado acostumbrado siempre a no desayunar porque no te gusta y no sientes mayor ansiedad al llegar al siguiente tiempo de comida lo puedes hacer. Si no te afecta. Si no te quita el sueño pensar solamente en comida, en peso y ver el reloj para esperar que te toque la siguiente comida.

Eso sí, ningún tiempo de comida es más importante que otro, y lo importante no es solamente comer, hay que hacer énfasis en que lo importante es finalmente lo que se come. Para desayunar cereales de caja azucarados, leche saborizadas, pan con embutidos y comida frita, es preferible no desayunar, porque genera esa comida más perjuicio que no comer. Pero en enfoque ideal debe ser preferir mejorar las opciones de comida, así comemos, y lo hacemos de una forma saludable.

Fotos: Mensig.fit; youtube


Cristina Bajaña de Flores

Nutricionista – Dietista

Instagram @nutricion_cristinab

Consultas 0998673856

 

Acerca de Aurelio Paredes

Periodista de Profesión (Licenciado en Comunicación Social, graduado en la Universidad de Guayaquil), ecuatoriano de nacimiento, 59 años de edad y 37 años de experiencia. Empezó en 1982 como reportero radial y escaló posiciones hasta llegar a ser Editor de Deportes de Diario El Universo de Guayaquil, considerado el matutino de mayor circulación en Ecuador; Director de Revista Estadio (Deportiva) y Editor de Revista Vistazo (Política y Actualidad); presentador de televisión en varios programas deportivos; columnista de deportes y páginas humorísticas bajo el seudónimo de Delado; y guionista empírico en algunos programas de la televisión ecuatoriana. En la función pública fue Director de Comunicación de la Procuraduría General del Estado y en la empresa privada, Director de la Federación Deportiva Nacional del Ecuador.

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