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FRASES PREPOSITIVAS

 

De acuerdo con lo determinado en la Revista Delado, se ofrece a los lectores una sección denominada ¡Habla Bien Oye! que trata temas de gramática con base a las reglas determinadas por la Real Academia de la Lengua Española (RAE). Desde este punto de vista y en relación con lo planteado editorialmente, la intención es contribuir con los seguidores a que mejores sus formas de escribir y hablar y que corrijan esos errores gramaticales, sobre la base de una enseñanza didáctica con estilo divertido. ¿Se percató de las palabras subrayadas en negro? Estas, no son puestas al azar, son parte del nuevo tema de esta publicación que esta vez tratará sobre las frases prepositivas. 

Las Frases Prepositivas o Preposicionales (por su posición en la oración) son los conjuntos de dos o más palabras que funcionan como una preposición simple o como preposiciones compuestas y son equivalentes a otras de que dispone el lenguaje. Ejemplo: la busqué debajo de la cama / la busqué bajo la cama; la puse encima del escritorio / la puse sobre el escritorio.  En estas oraciones es indudable la igualdad de sentido de estas frases que resultan equivalentes.

Las expresiones formadas por combinaciones más o menos complicadas de preposiciones entre sí o de adverbios y preposiciones, que realizan en la oración el mismo papel gramatical que una preposición sola, deben llamarse frases prepositivas. Ejemplo de ello son las expresiones: encima de, debajo de, junto a, delante de, detrás de, de sobre, para con, desde dentro de, detrás de, por encima de, con respecto a, entre otras.

Existe también una amplia gama de preposiciones compuestas como por ejemplo: tras de, de entre, por entre, por sobre, para con, entre otras; y otras locuciones prepositivas que expresan todos los matices posibles del pensamiento para cuya expresión estricta, el lenguaje no dispone de preposición adecuada, ejemplo: en pos de, par de, frente a, en torno a, a pesar de, junto a, etcétera.

Ejemplos: A continuación, daremos algunos ejemplos de Frases Prepositivas y la correspondiente preposición simple equivalente, que será ubicada en paréntesis: a causa de (por). No fui a la fiesta a causa de una enfermedad / No fui a la fiesta por una enfermedad; acerca de (sobre). Expuse una conferencia acerca de Emelec /  Expuse una conferencia sobre Emelec. Así como estos ejemplos en que se remplazar las proposiciones en la oración, se puede hacer también con las expresiones: en favor de (por); por encima de (sobre); a fin de (para); en vista de (por); por medio de (por); delante de (ante); en medio de (entre)

en virtud de (por);  junto a (cabe), en este caso de la palabra cabe, usado como sinónimo de junto, su uso es muy poco común en nuestro idioma. Nosotros asociamos la palabra cabe como conjugación del verbo caber. Pero para la RAE, cabe también significa cerca de o junto a. Uso que como señalamos es muy poco frecuente en el hablar cotidiano y es más utilizado en la poesía.  Ejemplo: se sentó sobre la mesa / se sentó cabe la mesa. Aquí cabe remplaza a sobre y aunque no hay error ortográfico, si se escucha raro por el poco uso de ese término.

Preposiciones pospuestas. El uso general de  las preposiciones es que vayan siempre precediendo, (como su nombre indica), al sustantivo al que relacionan con otra palabra. Sin embargo, no siempre sucede así, sino que hay casos en que funcionan después del sustantivo, en ese caso se denominan como preposiciones pospuestas: Estas son: abajo, arriba, adentro, afuera, adelante, atrás, antes, después. Ejemplo: Ella caminó calle arriba, la canoa se perdió mar adentro; escuché esa canción años atrás

 Errores en su uso

Hay frases prepositivas que continuamente se prestan para cometer errores ortográficos, pues se las usa comúnmente a pesar de que la RAE las determina como mal usadas. Este es el caso de:

Incorrecto                                                Correcto

De acuerdo a                                                de acuerdo con

En base a                                                      con base a

En relación a                                              en relación con

Por el contrario                                            por lo contrario

Bajo esa base                                              sobre esa base

Más sin embargo                                         sin embargo

Bajo este punto de vista                           desde este punto de vista

En el caso de la palabra arriba mencionadas queda claro su uso con este par de ejemplos. De acuerdo a lo manifestado por el presidente, los deportistas nunca ganan nada (Error). Se debe decir: De acuerdo con lo manifestado por el presidente, los deportistas nunca ganan nada.

En base a lo manifestado anteriormente (error) Se debe decir: En base con lo manifestado anteriormente.

¿Entendió el uso de las frases propositivas?  Si entendió, aplíquelo para que hable o escriba correctamente y con propiedad. Si no entendió , le tengo una propuesta “propositiva” lea de nuevo.

 

 

Acerca de Aurelio Paredes

Periodista de Profesión (Licenciado en Comunicación Social, graduado en la Universidad de Guayaquil), ecuatoriano de nacimiento, 59 años de edad y 37 años de experiencia. Empezó en 1982 como reportero radial y escaló posiciones hasta llegar a ser Editor de Deportes de Diario El Universo de Guayaquil, considerado el matutino de mayor circulación en Ecuador; Director de Revista Estadio (Deportiva) y Editor de Revista Vistazo (Política y Actualidad); presentador de televisión en varios programas deportivos; columnista de deportes y páginas humorísticas bajo el seudónimo de Delado; y guionista empírico en algunos programas de la televisión ecuatoriana. En la función pública fue Director de Comunicación de la Procuraduría General del Estado y en la empresa privada, Director de la Federación Deportiva Nacional del Ecuador.

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REDUNDANCIA

La redundancia y sus rarezas. Esta nota lo sorprenderá porque le demostrará que hay expresiones …

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